How Do Olympic Gymnasts Train (a guide)

Gymnastics is one of the most watched and awe-inspiring Olympic sports. The artistry, precision, and seemingly gravity-defying skills that gymnasts demonstrate during their routines require years of training and dedication.

What does it take to become an elite, Olympic-level gymnast? It all comes down to intense, disciplined, and meticulously planned training that starts at a remarkably young age.

gymnast floor

Table of Contents

Getting an Early Start

The training schedule for an Olympic gymnast begins years before they are old enough to compete at the Olympic level. Most future Olympians start learning gymnastics skills as a toddler or preschooler, stretching and tumbling as soon as they can walk and roll. It’s crucial to get an early start in the sport for a few key reasons.

First, younger children are naturally flexible and tend to more easily learn movements and motor patterns. Beginning training early allows time to build their skill level progressively as they grow. Second, starting at a young age ingrains good technique during these formative years. Learning the proper form for skills is vital before increasing difficulty and amplitude.

gymnast stretching

Thirdly gymnasts usually retire at a relatively young age in comparison to most other sports. By the time female gymnasts are in their early twenties, they have reached peak physical condition and for the men, mid to late twenties is a decent retirement age.

Finally, gymnastics requires a great deal of core and upper body strength relative to body size and weight. Starting strength training young allows natural strength gains over time.

Serious training in a gym environment often begins around age 5 or 6. At this stage, the focus is on building overall fitness, coordination, balance, and learning foundational skills. Young gymnasts may spend 15-20 hours per week in the gym, rotating through work on different apparatuses and fundamental drills.

For example, they will work on basic bar skills like forward rolls, back hip circles, and casting handstands. Beam work involves mastering mounts and dismounts, balancing skills like scales, and simple tumbling like handstands. Floor exercise builds tumbling abilities through cartwheels, handstands, and front and back walkovers. Physical abilities are continually challenged as skills increase in difficulty.

Honing Technique and Skills as a Teen

By the teenage years, gymnasts devote 30-40 hours per week solely to gymnastics training. Tumbling, flexibility and strength work accelerate to prepare them for more complex skills. Now training intensifies on each individual apparatus as they develop the elite skills needed to compete nationally and internationally.

On uneven bars, gymnasts work towards release moves, pirouettes, and transitions between the high and low bars. Balance beam skills emphasize grace, flexibility, and precision as teens work on advanced balances like illusion turns and intricate acrobatic combinations.

future gymnast

Floor exercise tumbling reaches new heights with powerful tumbling passes that may incorporate multiple back handsprings into full twisting layouts. Their proficiency and difficulty on vault also increase as they perfect their approach and implement more challenging entries like round offs and handsprings.

This training demands immense precision and repetition. Coaches break down even the smallest details of the technique. Gymnasts will drill skills over and over until they can be executed perfectly. Core strength and the upper body and shoulder muscles are honed through weight training and conditioning programs tailored to their needs.

Proper nutrition ensures they get enough calories and protein to support their rapid growth and intensive training demands.

Mental Preparation

In addition to the physical rigor, mental preparation begins to play a huge role as teens are expected to perform under significant pressure at competitions. Elite gymnasts work with sports psychologists on anxiety management, visualization, and mindfulness techniques. Staying mentally sharp yet calm during the biggest meets helps them nail routines when it matters most.

Pre-Olympic Training Schedule

In the year or two leading up to the Olympics, training intensity skyrockets. The gymnasts vying for a spot on their country’s Olympic team will train up to 40 hours per week, sometimes more. Their weekly schedule is grueling.

A typical intensive training week for a female artistic gymnast may look like:

  • Monday – 5 hours of general skills work, strength training, and ballet. They use this day to recover from the past week while working on foundational abilities.
  • Tuesday – 7 hours spent drilling uneven bars skills and routines. Bars requires tremendous grip strength and shoulder mobility, so gymnasts will repeat transitions and releases until they are consistent. They’ll also work on dance-like ballet movements for grace. Time is spent on cardio machines like the elliptical to build stamina. Stretching keeps muscles long and flexible.
  • Wednesday – 5 hours working on new dance moves and choreographing how to integrate them smoothly into floor exercise routines. Gymnasts also meet with sports psychologists for mental preparation. Visualization, meditation, and positive self-talk help gymnasts stay focused under pressure.
  • Thursday – 8 hours training on uneven bars again, followed by intense vault drills. Coaches perfect even the smallest technical details, like arm position during handsprings onto the vault. More dance training integrates new choreography. Cardio like running or cycling develops cardiovascular endurance.
  • Friday – 6 hours dedicated to balance beam work, especially on combinations that require immense concentration and precision. Then floor exercise skills like tumbling passes are drilled for height and control. Weight training maintains muscle and bone density that supports dynamic skills.
  • Saturday – 7 hours of performing full routines on each apparatus in a simulated competition setting. This tests their skills under pressure and helps prepare them mentally and physically for competitions. Coaches take notes on areas needing more work.
  • Sunday – Active recovery like walking, stretching, massage, provides a break without losing fitness.

The week revolves around splitting time between the apparatuses while also developing stamina, flexibility, strength, and artistry. Gymnasts must quickly correct any flaws spotted by coaches given the short timeline between competitions.

Every skill and routine must be polished to the highest level of readiness. Gymnasts continue to push themselves technically and physically, preparing new upgrades to add bonus difficulty. Turns, leaps, and tumbling passes are executed with picture-perfect form. Their mental game must also be competition-ready, as they simulate high-pressure meets during training.

Preventing and Recovering from Injuries

To withstand their strenuous training, gymnasts must be extremely proactive about injury prevention. They diligently stretch and foam roll daily to maintain flexibility and joint health. Taping ankles, knees, and wrists helps stabilize those injury-prone joints during landings and skills. Gymnasts apply athletic braces and use small pain-relieving devices when needed.

Rest and recovery are also paramount. Gymnasts take scheduled rest days and integrate lower-impact cardio like swimming to stay fit while giving their bodies a break. Massage therapy helps their muscles recover faster. Proper nutrition provides fuel and nutrients needed for tissue repair.

Yet despite their best efforts, injuries still happen in this physically grueling sport. When injured, gymnasts work closely with athletic trainers and physical therapists to rehabilitate any strained muscles or damaged ligaments. Smaller injuries may involve short rest periods and modified training. More severe injuries can require months of intense therapy and training modifications to enable a safe return to competition readiness.

The Road to Olympics

Earning a coveted spot on an Olympic gymnastics team requires immense dedication over many years. While their childhood friends enjoy summer vacations and school activities, these elite athletes devote nearly all their free time to training.

The perfection required at the Olympic level is unbelievable, as a single step out of bounds or a slight wobble could destroy medal dreams. It’s no surprise Olympic gymnasts retire at a remarkably young age considering the extreme toll this training takes on their still-growing bodies.

Yet the pursuit of Olympic glory continues to motivate a new generation of young gymnasts each cycle. Female gymnasts typically peak in their late teens to early twenties when they can combine petite, flexible physiques with mastered skills acquired from years of diligent training.

Male gymnasts generally reach their prime in their early to mid 20s as they gain additional strength and experience to achieve their most difficult skills and routines. All Olympic gymnasts should be applauded for their immense dedication, discipline, and sacrifice required to reach the pinnacle of their beautiful sport.

Final Thoughts

In summary, the journey to becoming an Olympic gymnast requires immense sacrifices, discipline, determination, and perseverance starting from a remarkably young age. These athletes spend most of their childhood and adolescence training well over 30 hours a week to hone their skills on various apparatuses.

Their training schedule ramps up even further in the year preceding the Olympics, as they put their bodies and minds through the rigors of 6-7 hour practices six days a week. Every minute detail must be drilled to perfection.

While intense, their meticulous preparation allows Olympic gymnasts to demonstrate the pinnacle of athleticism, artistry, and human potential on the world’s biggest stage.